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Paleo Archaic Woodland Historic

Middle Archaic (6,000 - 2,500 B.C.)

The Middle Archaic can be divided into two time periods:

Middle Archaic I (6,000 - 3,500 B.C.)

    Very little is known about this time period as very few sites have been identified from this period within southwestern Ontario. It appears that the main projectile point form is the Stanly/Neville form consisting of a small to medium size, often made on small, thin flakes of poor quality, courser grained cherts or non-chert materials, such as quartz, siltstone, felsites and course-grained rhylolites.

    It is suggested that fishing is one of the main occupations of these people due to the presence of netsinkers, smooth rocks with deep notches where a net was tied around. Plant processing is also suggested by the presence of tools such as grinding stones. Also present are ground and polished stone tools, including grooved axes.

   Other polished rocks recovered are bannerstones. They consist of ground and polished tubes, either plain or winged, with a hole drilled threw its centre. It is suggested that these were used as weights for an atlatl, a wooden extension for a throwing spear so the hunter can throw further and more accurate while hunting.

Middle Archaic II (3,500 - 2,500 B.C.)

    It is suggested that the Middle Archaic in southern Ontario are possibly Laurentian, the people living within the Ottawa area also at this time. The Laurentian are characterized by broad-bladed and corner-notched points for hunting deer, rabbit, raccoon and squirrel. Fishing became an important activity. As a result, these people became more sedentary, moving across the land a lot less, searching for food in the immediate area instead of traveling great distances as before.  Larger campsites have been recovered for these people, with burial of their deceased in individual graves within the campsite.  The populations appear to be increasing, with more people living within a campsite for longer periods of time. Trade for goods seem to increase as these people move less at shorter distances throughout the year.

Early Archaic Middle Archaic Late Archaic

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