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Paleo Archaic Woodland Historic

Late Archaic (2,500 - 900 B.C.)

Narrow Point (2,500 - 1,800 B.C.)

    This time period is characterized by mainly coarsely flaked points that are twice as long as they are wide. The tool kit includes nut processing tools, suggesting that nuts were a major source of food protein.

Broad Point (2,500 - 1,500 B.C.)

    Broad point technology appeared very quickly over a large area of North America, suggesting that this new tool kit, sometimes made on courser grained and poorer quality stone, was adapted and used by a large number of archaic groups. In Ontario, the people seemed to add these new large points into their previously used hunting and gathering tool kits. Some of these large blades may have been used as knives, while others show characteristics of being used as spears.

    Ground stone tools, such as axes, do not appear to be common on Broad Point sites. The Broad Point sites tend to be located near upland forests, suggesting that these people relied heavily on hunting deer and other medium sized game.

Small Point (1,500 - 1,000 B.C.)

   The shift from large to small points suggests a change in hunting technology, possibly from spears to bow and arrow hunting. These hunter-gatherers appear to have more variety in their diet, with their campsites located near major sources of water for fishing and hunting.

   During the Small Point, we see the first cemeteries in Ontario. The reasons for these cemeteries has been questioned. Archaeologists have suggested that cemeteries are markers in the land showing ownership (territorality) and/or social ties to their dead. We do know that the people were well respected by their friends and family based on how they were buried, usually with beaded shell necklaces, along with other jewelry and/or personal items.

Early Archaic Middle Archaic Late Archaic


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