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Paleo Archaic Woodland Historic

    The history of Bothwell and surrounding areas can be divided into four time periods: Paleo, Archaic, Woodland and Historic. The Paleo, Archaic and Woodland periods are prior to European contact, consisting of hunters, hunter/gatherers and agriculturalists, respectively. The Historic period is marked by the emergence of Jesuits during the 17th century and the social displacement of the First Nations people. 

Cultural Chronology for Southwestern Ontario 

PERIOD

GROUP

TIME RANGE

COMMENT

PALEO

Fluted Point

Hi-Lo

9500 - 8500 B.C.

8300 - 7900 B.C.

Big game hunters; small nomadic groups

ARCHAIC

 

 

 

Early

Side Notched

8050-7750 B.C.

Nomadic hunters and gatherers

Nettling

7900-6900 B.C.

Bifurcate Base

6800 - 6000 B.C.

Middle

Laurentian

3500 - 2500 B.C.

Transition to territorial settlements

Late

Lamoka

2500 - 1800 B.C.

Polished/ground stone tools

Broad Point

1800 - 1400 B.C.

Crawford Knoll

1500 – 500 B.C.

Glacial Kame

ca. 1000 B.C.

Burial ceremonialism

WOODLAND

 

 

 

Early

Meadowood

Red Ochre

1000 - 400 B.C.

1000 – 500 B.C.

Introduction of pottery

Middle

Saugeen

Princess Point

400 B.C. - 500 A.D.

500 – 800 A.D.

Long distance trade networks. Incipient horticulture

Middle:

Western Basin

Couture

300 B.C. –500 A.D.

Long distance trade networks

Riviθre au Vase

500-900 A.D.

Incipient horticulture

Late:

Iroquoian

Pickering

800 – 1280 A.D.

Transition to village life and agriculture

Uren

1280 - 1330 A.D.

Large village sites

Middleport

1330 - 1400 A.D.

Widespread stylistic horizon

Neutral

1400 - 1650 A.D.

Tribal differentiation and warfare

Late:

Western Basin

Yonge Phase

900 – 1300 A.D.

Transition to village life and agriculture

Springwells Phase

1300 – 1400 A.D.

Large village sites

Wolf Phase

1400 – 1550 A.D.

Tribal differentiation and warfare

HISTORIC

 

 

 

Early

Odawa, Ojibwa,

Potawatomi

1700 - 1875 A.D.

Social displacement

Late

Odawa, Ojibwa,

Potawatomi

Euro-Canadian

1800 A.D. - present

European settlement

 

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